Selasa, 06 Desember 2011

Makalah Tentang Alphabet in Pronunciation

CHAPTER I
ABSTRACTION

English is a West Germanic language related to Dutch, Frisian and German with a significant amount of vocabulary from French, Latin, Greek and many other languages. Pronunciation is a particular way of uttering and individual word or (less usually) words in general. There are differences of English Pronunciation, No two people pronounce exactly alike the differences arise from a variety of causes, such as geographical area or social class. There are also individual peculiarities for which it is difficult or impossible to account (Daniel Jones, 1986:3).In word spelling, we will discuss how to spell letter by letter and word for word, be it said the word from the beginning, middle, or end letter. And Variants spelling is a description of the types that exist in the spelling which consists of Regional Variation, historical variation, style variation, hypenations/compounds, ‘common’ misspellings and uncertain capitalisation.

CHAPTER II
CONTENT

A.PRONUNCIATION
Pronunciation is a noun, way in which a langage or a particular word or sound is spoken. In English there are more than 40 sounds. Among these sounds there are some who have an extremely close so it is very difficult to be interpreted when heard by non-native speakers. How to pronounce the sound of a word in English is called as the pronunciation is usually written with symbols in a slash ( Oxford LEARNER’S POCKET Dictionary New Edition, 2003, page 415.). These components range from the individual sounds that make up speech, to the way in which pitch-rise and fall of the voice – is use to convey meaning (Martin Hewings 2004:3),and according to Weber, pronunciation is the act of uttering with articulation, the act of giving the proper sound and accent: utterance:as, the pronunciation,(Webster:1913).
B.ENGLISH ALPHABET
1.Defenintion
English alphabet is a Latin-based alphabet consisting of 26 letters, the same letters that are found in the Basic modern Latin alphabet (www. Wikipedia.com)
2.Kinds of English Alphabet
Majuscule Forms (also called uppercase or capital letters) :
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Minuscule Forms (also called lowercase or small letters) :
a b c d e f g h I j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
(Dra. Yunita Agnes Sianipar, 2010:6-7)
3.Usefulness of English Alphabet
The twenty six letters of the English Alphabet are used to represent the twenty four consonant sounds and a minimum of fourteen vowels sounds. The following are some important things to know about how English spelling corresponds to English pronunciation. (Dra. Yunita Agnes Sianipar, 2010:9)
a.the short vowels sounds are regularly represented by VC (C).
back pet tip knot us
to represents the short vowels sound when you add a suffix beginning with a vowel (for example, -ing, -er, -est), double the final consonant letter if the word ends in one consonant.
Pat, patting pet, petting tip, tipping knot, knotting
No spelling changes are made if the word ends in two consonants.
Rock, rocker blend, blending pick, picking
Knock, knocking rust, rusty
b.The long vowels are regularly represented by VCe
Make type note use
Such words regularly lose the final e before a suffix beginning with a vowel.
Make, making type, typist note, noted use, using
Note : the long vowels are also represented by other spellings.
c.Words which end in Cy change the y to I before the endings –es
Baby, babies city, cities family, families
Cry, cries study, studies
d.English spelling often uses two or more letters to represent one sound or no sound. (the letters in parenthess represent a single sound)
(CH, TCH):check, match
(CK) :plek, lack, lock
(DG-E) :bridge, judging
(GH) :cough, enough, through, bough, ought, through
(GN) :knight, knee
(MB) :comb, lamb
(NG) :sing, singer
(PH) :phone, philosophy, graph
(SH) :short, rush
(SI, SU):measure, vision
(SSi, TI):mission, nation
(TH) /ð /:then, mother, bathe, smooth
(TH) /Ɵ/:thin, mathematical, truth
(WR) :wrong, awry, write (Yunita Agus Sianipar dan Juli Rachmadani Hasibuan,2010:9-10)


C.WORD SPELLING
Spell 1say or write the letters of a word in correct order, Spelling 2act of forming words correctly from individual letters, ability to do this 3way in which word is spelt (Oxford LEARNER’S POCKET Dictionary New Edition, 2003:415)
Spelling words in English is challenging work. As a matter of fact, many native speakers of English have problems with spelling correctly. One of the main reasons for this is that many, many English words are NOT spelled as they are spoken. This difference between pronunciation and spelling causes a lot of confusion. The combination "ough" provides an excellent example (http://esl.about.com/od/writingintermediate/a/l_spell.htm)
Tough - pronounced - tuf (the 'u' sounding as in 'cup')
Through - pronounced - throo
Dough - pronounced - doe (long 'o')
Bought - pronounced - bawt
Spelling is a basic lesson in reading. Way of spelling is the forming of words with letters in an accepted order.
The way of people’s spelling depend on the area. As we know in language have two styles, first American style and second British style. So variant of spelling are many, depend on the country that use English as their language.

1.SPELLING:doubling of final consonants.
Many english words change their spelling before the endings –ed, -ing, and –er, -est. Words ending in a consonant may double it (eg.stop, stopping). The rules are as follow: (Michael Swan, 1980:568)
-A consonants is only doubled at the end of a word. Compare:
Hop, hopping BUT hope, hoping
Fat, fatter BUT fate, fater
Plan, planned BUT phone, phoned
-Doubling only happens when there is one consonant after one vowel letter, compare:
Fat, fatter BUT fast, faster (not fasstter)
Bet, betting BUT beat, beating (not beatting)
-In words of more than one sylable. The final consonant is only doubled if it is in a stressed syllable, compare:
Up’set, up’setting BUT ‘visit, ‘visiting
Be’gin, be’ginning BUT ‘open, ‘opening
Re’fer, re’ferring BUT ‘offer, ‘offering
‘galloping, ‘galloped NOT gallopping, gallopped
De’veloping, de’veloped NOT de’velopping, de’velopped
‘benefiting, ‘benefited NOT ‘benefitting, ‘benefitted
-In british english, final –l is doubled (after one vowel) even if the sylable is not stressed.
‘travel, ‘travelled ‘equal, ‘equalled
In american english, final –l is only usually doubled if the syilable is stressed. Compare:
Re’bel, re’belled ‘travel, ‘traveled
-Final –c is changed to –ck before –ed, -ing, -er:
Picnic, picnickers
-The lesson for doubling is to show that the vowel has a short sound. This is because a stressed vowel before one consonant usually has a long sound in the middle of a word.
2.SPELLING y and i
-Final –y usually changes to –i if something is added to a (eg: -ed –er –est –able –ment –ness –ly –ous –age)
Hurry, hurried easy, easier rely, reliable
Merry, merriment busy, business happy, happiest
Nouns/verbs ending in –y have plural/third persons forms in
Story, stories hurry, hurries spy, spies
-This change does not happen before endings beginning with –ing, -ish, -ize, -ism)
Try, trying study, studying baby, babyish
-This change does not happen if the-y comes after a vowel letter
Buy, buying play, played enjoy, enjoyment
Grey, greyish
Exeptions:
Say, said lay, laid pay, paid
-Final –ie changes to –y before –ing:
Die, dying lie, lying

3.SPELLING final –e
-When something is added to a word ending in –e, the –e is normal dropped before a vowel
Hope, hoping make, making note, notable
Fame, famous
This does not happen with words ending in –ee:
See, seeing agree, agreeable
Exceptions: like, likeable/likable mile, mileage/milage
-With words ending in –ge and –ce, the –e is not dropped before a or o
Courage, courageous replace, replaceable
-Final –e is not normally dropped before a consonant.
Excite, excitement hope, hopeful nice, nicely
Exceptions: words ending in –ue
Due, duly true, truly argue, argument
4.SPELLING adverb formation
-We often change an adjective into an adverb by adding –ly. When this happens, the adjective does not usually change its spelling.
Late, lately right, rightly glad, gladly
Hopeful, hopefully real, really medical, medically
Definite, defanately complete, completely
Note that final –e is not dropped (completely, not completly), and that if the adjective ends in –l, the adverb will have –ll (real, really not realy)
-Final –y changes to –i before –ly
Happy, happily easy, easily dry, drily
-If an adjective ends in –le, the adverb has –ly instead of –lely
Nable, nably idle, idly
-If an adjective ends in –ic, the adverb ends in –ically
Tragic, tragically domestic, domestically
-Exceptions: truly, duly, wholly, fully, shyle, slyly, publicly

5.SPELLING: ch and tch, k and ck
-After a single vowel, at the end of a word, we usually write –ck and –ich for the sounds /k/and /tf/
Back neck sick lack stuck
Catch fetch stitch batch butch
Exeptions: rich, which, such, much, detach, attach, yak
-After a consonant of after two vowel letters, we write –k and –ch for the same sounds:
Bank, work, talk break, book, soak
March peach, broach, coach
6.SPELLING: le and ei
The combination ei is not a common way to spell the sound/i:/. We normally write ie, except after c. (english children learn the thyme /i before e, except after e’.)
Believe chief field grief
Celling deceive receive receipt
Exeption: seize
Note that the spelling ei usually stands for the sound /ci/
Example:
Beige deign rein reign veil
Exception: foreign
7.SPELLING: -ise –ize
In British English, most words ending in –ise can also be spelt wize.
Mechanise/mechanize computerise/computerize
Realise/realize
Exceptions are words in two syllables (eg surprise) and advertise
In American English only –ize is used.
Note also analyse (GB):analyze (US)
For more information about differences between British and American spelling
8.SPELLING: capital tetters
-The days of the week, and the months, are written with capital letters at the beginning (but not usually the seasons)
Sunday Tuesday March September
BUT summer autumn
-Capital letters are used for the names of the planets (but not the earth, the sun or the moon)
Jupiters Mars Venus
-Capital letters are used for nationality words (nouns or adjectives)
He’s Russian I speak Russian Russian history
-The words north, east, south, and west are written with capital letters when they are used in place names;
-The Far East The West End North Africa
(of london)
-The names of professions have capital letters when they are used as titles. Compare:
He’s a professor He’s just been promoted colonel
Where ‘s Professor Jones? There’s Colonel Sanders

9.SPELLING: hyphons
-A hypen is the short line (-) that is out between two words in an expression like book-shop or ex-husband.
The rules about when to use hyphens are not very clear. If you are not sure wheather to put one in a particular expression, it is safest to leave it out.
The following points may help:
a.Hypens are common in compound adjectives like broken hearted, blue-eyed, heart-broken (made with –ed or a past participle)
b.When a group of words is used as an adjective before a noun, hyphens are often used. Compare:
He is out of work an out-of-work lorry-driver
It cost ten pounds a ten-pound note
c.In many cases, there is a connection between spelling and pronunciation, words which are put together (with a hyphen or as one word) usually have the main stress (spoken with the strongest force) on the first words expressions which are written separately usually have the main stress on the second part. Compare:
Book-case make-up
Paper bag to make up
-Hypens are also used to divide words at the ends of lines
....is not the policy of the present government, which was voted into power with a clear mandate to...

10.SPELLING: full stops with abbreviations
A full stop is the dot that comes at the end of a sentence. It is also often used after an abbreviated word, and after an initial letter that stands for a word or name ((Michael Swan, 1980:576)
Mr. Lewis Mr. Johnson T.S Ellot
Etc. E.g. U.S.A
S.E Asia
In modern English (especially British English), abbreviations are often written full stops.
Mr. Lewis Mr. Johnson T.S Ellot
Etc Eg USA
SE Asia
Full stops are not usually written in a group of initial Letters that is pronounced like a word (like NATO or UNO)
11.SPELLING and pronunciation: silent letters
-stle and –sten are pronounced /sl/ and /sn/ at the end of a word (t is silent)
Whistle castle listen
Fasten
-gn is pronounced /n/ at the beginning or end of a word(the g silent)
Sign foreign champagne
Gnome
-nth and –mn are pronounced /m/ at the end of a word
Climb comb dumb
Hymn autumn
Kn- is pronounced /n/ at the beginning of a word.
Know knife
Ps-, pn- dan pt- are pronounced /s/ /n/ and /i/ at the beginning of a word (the p is silent)
Psychology pneumatic
Pterodactyl ptomaine
-wh is pronounced /h/ before o at the beginning of a word
Who whose whole
In other cases, -wh is pronounced /w/ at the beginning of a word
Where what whip
Some people pronounce these words with /hw/ an ‘unvoiced w’ like hw, especially in the north of the england, in scotland, and in many parts of the United State
Where
Wr- is pronouned ‘ed at the beginning of a word.
Wrap write
-In British English r is not pronounced before a consonant
Board turn
In British English, r is only pronounced at the end of a word when the next word begins with a vowel sound and follows without a pauses.
Ear mother
The verb ending –cred is pronounced /∂d/
Wondered bothered
The ending –re is pronounced /∂(r)/
Theatre centre fire
In the word iron “ “ the r is silent
In American English, r is pronounced in all positions in a word
-Some other commons words with silent letters.
Silent l calm chalk could
Half palm salmon
Should talk walk Would
Silent h honest honour hour Heir
Silent d handkerchief sandwich Wednesday
Silent t christmasts often soften
Silent p cupboard
Silent c muscle (Michael Swan, 1980:568-578)

D.VARIANTS SPELLING
List of Variants spelling:
-Regional variation – different spelling in different regions. Mostly US vs UK/ Commonwealth spelling. Eg: color/colour, centre/center
-Historical variation – different spellings in different areas through the development of language. Eg: anaemia vs anaemia, coordinate vs coordinate.
-Style variation – Eg: naivety, naivete, naivete, naivete.
-Hyphenations / compounds – Some compound words are variously spelt with a hypen, with a space between the words, or just as a single word; there is often regional varience with these terms. Eg: tea cup, tea-cup, teacup.
-Common misspellings – A word may be very commonly misspelt. Although “everyone knows” that one version is a ‘misspelling’, nevertheless some way look the word up under the “wrong” spelling. In practice, this may just be early evidence for one of the others forms of varience developing. Eg: a lot, accommodation.
-Uncertain capitalization – the word is often spelt either with or without capitalization. Eg: Zapelin, zeppelin; LASER, laser. If the capitalization is going to be the only difference, then create just one real entry, and one redirect entry.

CHAPTER III

CONCLUSION

Pronunciation is a noun, way in which a langage or a particular word or sound is spoken. In English there are more than 40 sounds. Among these sounds there are some who have an extremely close so it is very difficult to be interpreted when heard by non-native speakers.
English alphabet is a Latin-based alphabet consisting of 26 letters, the same letters that are found in the Basic modern Latin alphabet (www. Wikipedia.com)
Spell 1say or write the letters of a word in correct order, Spelling 2act of forming words correctly from individual letters, ability to do this 3way in which word is spelt (Oxford LEARNER’S POCKET Dictionary New Edition, 2003:415)

REFERENCES

Swan, Michael.1980. Practical English Usage.Oxford University Press:London
Yunita, Agnes Sianipar.2010. Pronunciation Drills. Faculty of Languages and arts state University of Medan: Medan
Jones, Daniel.1986. The Pronunciation of English. Cambridge University:London
Hewings, Martin.2004. Pronunciation Practice Actility. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge
Oxford LEARNER’S POCKET Dictionary New Edition, 2003
Bybee, J. L. 2001. phonology and language Use. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge
Dillard. J. L. 1992. A History of American English. Longman, Essex
Downes, William. 1998. Language and Society. Cambridge University Press
Gerald Kelly.2000.How to Teach Pronunciation.Longman
Gimson. A. C.1980.An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English.Arnold, London
http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/wiktionary:spelling_variants_in_entry_names
http://esl.about.com/od/writingintermediate/a/l_spell.htm

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